Saturday, February 24, 2024

E-bike Charger Reference Design

By Nidhi Agarwal

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The reference design caters to e-mobility and general power supply needs with high efficiency, a wide input range, and a compact size, suitable for advanced battery management and power solutions.

e-bike charger

Electric bikes, known for their eco-friendliness and efficiency in urban mobility, have seen a surge in popularity, highlighting the critical need and importance of e-bike chargers. These chargers are not just tools for reenergizing the bike’s battery; they are pivotal in ensuring the overall health and longevity of the battery, which is the heart of an e-bike. Proper charging directly influences the performance, range, and reliability of the e-bike, making the role of the charger indispensable.

The MPSB005, a reference design by Monolithic Power, is primarily designed for Lithium-ion charger applications in e-Mobility. Still, with minimal modifications, it can also serve as a general Power Supply Unit. The board is powered by a single integrated circuit that combines Power Factor Correction (PFC) with an LLC resonant converter, controlled digitally (PFC). This innovative design balances performance, cost, and space efficiency by eliminating the need for low-frequency filters. Enhanced efficiency is provided through Synchronous Rectification (SR), replacing traditional diodes, and a constant current constant voltage control (CC-CV) for optimal battery charging. The board integrates components like HR1203, MP6924, and MP26085 and leverages the MPS LLC-Design web tool to meet all system requirements, offering high power density and exceptional performance at a reduced Bill of Materials (BOM) cost.

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Lithium-ion batteries typically include a Battery Management System (BMS) to keep the battery within its safe operating parameters. The MPSB005 charger can interface with such systems through a 5V output presence signal. It also features a Soft Connection Control (SCC) system, requiring only a few components, to mitigate high current spikes upon output connection that could otherwise trigger the BMS’s overcurrent protection. This control is achieved by equalizing the converter and battery voltages before engaging the relay. For additional control, users can solder a J4 connector and connect a Microcontroller Unit (MCU), allowing direct interaction with the current and voltage sensing signals and the relay control.

The reference design offers versatile applications, functioning primarily as an efficient battery charger for e-bikes. Its design and technology make it suitable for general AC/DC power supply purposes, showcasing its adaptability across different power management needs. The design is distinguished by various features that enhance its performance and safety. It boasts a wide operating input range from 90V to 265V, with a rated power of 230W and a constant voltage output. The board’s efficiency is impressively high, reaching up to 93%. All these capabilities are packed into a compact form factor measuring 172 x 74 x 50 mm.

Monolithic Power has tested this reference design. It comes with a Bill of Material (BOM), schematics, etc. You can find additional data about the reference design on the company’s website. To read more about this reference design, click here.

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