Wednesday, April 24, 2024

Multi-Cell 36-48V Battery Management System Reference Design

The reference design improves battery safety and performance, suitable for vehicles, energy storage, and industrial applications.

BMS

The advent of high-voltage battery systems in sectors like electric mobility, renewable energy storage, and industrial machinery has underscored the critical importance of advanced Battery Management Systems (BMS). Specifically, Multi-Cell 36-48V BMS units have become indispensable in safeguarding these power sources. They are the sentinels of battery packs, continuously monitoring and managing the intricate dance of charge and discharge cycles across numerous cells. By maintaining each cell within optimal parameters, these systems not only ensure the safety and reliability of high-energy batteries but also significantly enhance their longevity and performance. As we pivot to a more electrified future, the role of a robust BMS becomes ever more pivotal in the seamless operation and integration of high-voltage battery technology in our daily lives.

The TIDA-00792, a reference design from Texas Instruments (TI), delivers a comprehensive solution for the supervision, equalization, fundamental safeguarding, and capacity measurement of lithium-ion or lithium-iron phosphate batteries ranging from 12 to 15 cells. Designed for industrial system integration, this circuit board is tailored for installation within a protective enclosure. It offers a reference design that simplifies the battery management process by precluding the need for coding through preset parameters. Moreover, it incorporates high-side protection switching, facilitating straightforward communication about the battery’s status via PACK-referenced SMBus, even when the system is protected. The integrated cell balancing functionality ensures an extended battery life by equalizing the charge across all cells, while the gas gauging feature estimates the system’s run time. 

This system design is tailored for a 48-V nominal lithium-ion or lithium-iron-phosphate battery management system (BMS) that operates effectively across a voltage range of approximately 36 V to 50 V. The design concept revolves around a versatile board, which can be selectively populated to meet the needs of various systems. These systems may require a similar battery configuration but have different current requirements, and this design accommodates such variability without the necessity for form factor optimization.

Crucial operational parameters such as cell voltage, pack current, and temperature are continually measured and monitored to ensure the battery remains within safe operating conditions. Any deviations trigger alerts to a host system and can activate protective protocols to halt charging or discharging as needed. Utilizing high-side N-channel FETs for protection switching facilitates a wide selection of FETs and ensures uninterrupted low-side communication, even during protective events. The state-of-charge is accurately gauged using compensated end-of-discharge voltage (CEDV) or end-of-discharge voltage (EDV) methods. All safety limits are predefined to bypass the need for additional coding. This flexible design is ideal for battery packs in various applications, from industrial equipment and appliances to e-mobility, stationary energy storage, and UPS systems, whether used as-is or as a template for a custom-shaped solution.

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TI have tested this reference design. It comes with a Bill of Materials (BOM), Schematic, etc. You can find additional data about the reference design on the company’s website. To read more about this reference design, click here.

Nidhi Agarwal
Nidhi Agarwal
Nidhi Agarwal is a journalist at EFY. She is an Electronics and Communication Engineer with over five years of academic experience. Her expertise lies in working with development boards and IoT cloud. She enjoys writing as it enables her to share her knowledge and insights related to electronics, with like-minded techies.

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