Aviation is witnessing fast growth in global markets. Whether it is civil or military aviation, modern aircraft are equipped with electronics systems.
Accurate feedback systems and ease of control of aircraft systems are enabled by electronic sensors. Sensors help in measuring various parameters like monitoring, control and navigation. Thus, avionics or electronic systems play an important role in modern aviation.
Avionic systems include systems for communication, navigation and display, searchlights and complex tactical systems for airborne early warning signals. For example, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird—world’s fastest and highest-flying operational manned, air-breathing jet aircraft, which was used by the US Air Force—is equipped with electronic systems including signal intelligence sensors, side-looking airborne radars and camera sensors. If it detects a missile launched by the enemy, it simply accelerates and outflies the missile.
All sensors installed in aircraft are for flight instruments. These include tachometers, engine temperature gauges, fuel- and oil-quantity gauges, pressure gauges, altimeters, airspeed-measurement meters, vertical speed indicators and others. Then, there are sensors for ground testing, flight testing, vibration, environment, angle of attack and static. There are also doppler radars, lightning-detection radars, terrain radars, anti-collision warning systems and stall warning systems. Many of these instruments and control sensors supply additional signals to cockpit indicators, informing the pilots to take proper action and precaution, and prevent any kind of disaster or accident.
Aircraft computer systems receive data from various sensors, including air temperature probes, angle-of-attack probes and pitot-static pressure systems. These computers process inputs from these sensors, apply compensating factors and transmit information to the displays in the cockpit. The pilots continuously monitor the status of the engine and environment from the cockpits.
There are thousands of sensors for different commercial aircraft. It is too broad a category, not to mention the hundreds of models and makes of planes covering different generations of aircraft. We have narrowed these down to make a comprehensive list. This article delves into some common sensors used in aircraft for various purposes.
Types of sensors
These are used to monitor the quantities of lubrication oil and liquid coolant fluid in fuel transfer and bleed air systems. Firms like Esterline Corp. and Crane Aerospace & Electronics manufacture liquid sensors and fuel flow sensors. Sensata Technologies Inc. manufactures airflow sensors.
Pressure sensors monitor the pressure in hydraulic systems, braking, raising and lowering landing gear, engine oil, oxygen tanks, heating and coolant fluids. Firms like Esterline Corp. and Custom Control Sensors make pressure sensors for aviation.
Temperature sensors monitor the conditions of hydraulic oils, fuels, refrigerants and environmental cooling systems. These sensors include bi-metallic temperature gauges, thermometers, Wheatstone bridge indicators, ratiometers and thermocouples.
Omega Engineering Inc. makes high-precision temperature sensors for reliable, easy-to-assemble, extended-life and pre-flight applications. Hydra-Electric makes pressure and temperature sensors based on latest technology.
These measure changes in static air pressure to determine the altitude of the aircraft. For example, MS5803-02BA, based on MEMS technology, is a high-resolution altimeter sensor from TE Connectivity. It includes a high linearity pressure sensor and an ultra low power 24-bit ADC with internal factory-calibrated coefficients.
These calculate true air speed based on pitot tube, static pressure and temperature data.
Position sensors such as linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) and rotary variable differential transformers (RVDTs) sense the displacement of aircraft components. Companies that make such sensors include Magnetic Sensors Corp., BEI Sensors and Active Sensors.
Oxygen sensors are at the very heart of the control of inerting systems in Airbus and other civilian aircraft. Different types of oxygen sensors are available from SST Sensing Ltd.
Force and vibration sensors
Such sensors are used on aircraft to measure torque and force in braking and actuation systems as well as in flight controls.
Compasses and magnetometers
These are extremely useful for indicating where the aircraft is headed by measuring Earth’s magnetic fields.
Gyroscopes are used for direction indication as well as controlling the turning and attitude of aircraft. MEMS gyroscopes are used in modern aircrafts. Watson Industries makes different gyroscopes for the aviation industry.
Attitude heading and reference systems
Attitude heading and reference systems (AHRSes) have replaced most gyroscopes in modern aircraft. Data from MEMS devices, GPSes, magnetometers and accelerometers, and attitude information are received by AHRSes. Watson Industries also make AHRSes for aviation. A typical AHRS module is shown in Fig. 5.
Tachometers indicate engine rpm. Tachometer probes are used in turbine engines. These sense the changes in magnetic field flux density, as rotating gear wheels move at the same speed as compressor shafts travelling through the probes’ magnetic field. Resulting voltage signals are directly proportional to engine speed.
Other aircraft instruments include aneroid barometers, direction indicators, artificial horizons, attitude indicators, laser sensors, sound sensors, IR and RF sensors, among others.