Researchers study the current state of solid state batteries to deliver an insight to the battery performance and storage properties.
The rapidly growing need for high-performance batteries for a large number of applications has led to an increasing interest in achievable charging capacities and speeds. Research into electrochemical energy storage devices and their development is among those fields of material sciences in which most work is being done worldwide.
Researchers from Justus Liebig University Giessen, University of Münster and Helmholtz Institute Münster of Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany) analyzed the current state of the technology, critically considering the challenges and the unresolved issues which must be addressed to make solid-state batteries competitive.
A solid state battery is an enhanced version of lithium-ion battery whose function is currently achieved by means of a liquid, organic electrolyte. The aim is to use a solid electrolyte in solid-state batteries, promising better storage properties, longer lifetimes and increased safety.
Researchers concluded that in spite of the wide-ranging activities being undertaken in research institutes and industrial companies, there is not yet measurable progress over the established lithium-ion technology with its liquid electrolytes. In their analysis they mention various aspects as representing decisive challenges.
A key point for the development of solid electrolytes which can ensure higher battery performance and safety at the same time is having as low concentration of lithium as possible. Moreover, a maximum-capacity anode material is required, which enables the battery to have less volume and weight. Overall, the researchers say that new approaches in material research through a combination of theory and experiment are necessary, in particular through collaborations between as many different disciplines as possible.
Reference : Jürgen Janek et al, Challenges in speeding up solid-state battery development, Nature Energy (2023). DOI: 10.1038/s41560-023-01208-9