Tuesday, June 18, 2024

Security Alarm

Thwart any attempt of burglary in your house using this alarm circuit. When someone opens the door of your room, it sounds an alarm intermittently and flashes light as well. The circuit can also be used as an audio/visual alarm in case of fire or other emergency by momentarily pressing switch S3.

The circuit (refer Fig.1) is built around transformer X1, a standard bar magnet, reed switch S2, timer IC NE555 (IC1), opto-coupler IC MOC3020 (IC2), TRIAC BT136 and a few discrete components. Timer IC1 is wired as an astable multi-vibrator whose reset pin 4 is controlled by the reed switch. The reed switch fitted in the door frame acts as the sensor. A magnet is fixed on the door panel close to the reed switch.

Fig.1: Security alarm circuit
Fig.1: Security alarm circuit

The reed switch consists of a pair of contacts on ferrous metal sealed in a glass envelope. The contacts may be normally-open (which close when a magnetic field is present) or normally closed type (which open when a magnetic field is applied). A normally open- type reed switch is used here.

When the door is closed, reed switch S2 is in open state. When the door is opened, the bar magnet moves away from reed switch S2. As a result, reset pin 4 of IC NE555 goes high. The high output at pin 3 of IC1 enables IC2. Pin 4 of IC2 is connected to the gate of TRIAC1.

When the door is opened, bulb B1 flashes and the bell sounds (provided switch S4 is closed) indicating that the door has been opened. Flashing of the bulb and the alarm continue until the door is closed.

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Assemble the circuit on a general purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable cabinet. Connect the call bell at the back side and the bulb at the front side of the cabinet. Install the unit on the door of the room as shown in Fig.2.

Fig.2: Reed switch fitting in door
Fig.2: Reed switch fitting in door

The circuit is powered by mains supply.


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