Thursday, April 25, 2024

Buck-Boost Battery Chargers With High Power Density and Fast Charging

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  • The new devices from Texas Instruments provide great efficiency for compact battery-powered devices
  • Their low power consumption helps in increasing the battery life

Texas Instruments has introduced small buck-boost battery charger integrated circuits, which integrate power-path management for maximum power density and universal and fast charging at up to 97 per cent efficiency. The BQ25790 and BQ25792 support efficient charging and 10 times lower quiescent current through USB Type-C and USB Power Delivery (PD) ports in small personal electronics, portable medical devices and building automation applications.

Fast charging for wired or wireless applications

The BQ25790 and BQ25792 offer the flexibility to charge batteries with one to four cells in a series and up to 5 A of charging current across the full input-voltage range (3.6 V to 24 V) for USB Type-C and USB PD applications. The chargers’ integrated dual-input selector supports multiple power sources including wireless, USB, barrel jack and solar charging, while delivering fast charging – 97 per cent efficiency at 30 W.

Universal charging enables portable medical devices, such as blood-pressure monitors and low-power continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machines to charge from car adapters or USB-PD adaptors, providing flexibility and convenience to portable medical devices. A bi-directional operation for forward and reverse charging supports on-the-go (OTG) charging.

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Greater power and reduced solution cost

The chargers deliver 155 mW/mm2 (100 W/in2) of power – twice more than conventional devices. To reduce the solution size and bill of materials (BOM), the new buck-boost chargers fully integrate the following components:

  • Switching metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs)
  • Battery FET
  • Current-sensing circuits
  • Dual-input selector

The reduction in components is beneficial for applications such as compact smart speakers.

Increased battery run time and low power consumption

The BQ25790 and BQ25792 buck-boost battery chargers offer less than 1 µA of quiescent current, delivering at least five times longer shelf life through a dual ship mode and shutdown function that delivers up to 10 times lower quiescent current. Combined with an extremely low battery FET resistance of 8 mΩ allows engineers to further maximize battery run time for applications that require long periods of operation.

For example, video doorbell applications that typically rely on an AC power supply can operate without interruption when the primary source of power switches to the battery pack. By helping reduce power consumption and power loss through heat dissipation, the chargers enable video doorbells to run longer on battery power.

The BQ25790 is now available from TI and authorized distributors in 2.9-mm x 3.3-mm dimension, 56-pin wafer chip-scale package (WCSP). The BQ25792 is now available from TI and authorized distributors in a 4-mm x 4-mm dimension, 29-pin quad flat no-lead (QFN) package. The BQ25790EVM evaluation module is available from TI as well.


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