Sometimes, after rain, the air feels moist. The water seems to have suspended in the air. However, in certain AC’s you click some buttons and the atmosphere brightens up. How and why does it all happen?
Moisture forms up in the air, resulting in humidity. However, the humidity sensor in your AC picks it up and cleans it up for you. Isn’t that wonderful? Let’s take a look at how it does that.
A humidity sensor (or hygrometer) senses, measures, and reports both moisture and air temperature. The ratio of moisture in the air to the highest amount of moisture at a particular air temperature is called relative humidity. Relative humidity becomes an important factor when looking for comfort.
Humidity sensors work by detecting changes that alter electrical currents or temperature in the air.
There are three basic types of humidity sensors:
All three types of sensors monitor minute changes in the atmosphere in order to calculate the humidity in the air. Let us discuss these types in detail:
A capacitive humidity sensor measures relative humidity by placing a thin strip of metal oxide between two electrodes. The metal oxide’s electrical capacity changes with the atmosphere’s relative humidity. Weather, commercial and industries are the major application areas.
The capacitive type sensors are linear and can measure relative humidity from 0% to 100%. The catch here is a complex circuit and regular calibration. However, for designers this a lesser hassle over precise measurement and hence these dominate atmospheric and process measurements. These are the only types of full-range relative humidity measuring devices down to 0% relative humidity. This low-temperature effect often leads to them being used over wide temperature ranges without active temperature compensation.
Resistive humidity sensors utilize ions in salts to measure the electrical impedance of atoms. As humidity changes, so do the resistance of the electrodes on either side of the salt medium.
Two thermal sensors conduct electricity based upon the humidity of the surrounding air. One sensor is encased in dry nitrogen while the other measures ambient air. The difference between the two measures the humidity.
Tips on Humidity Sensor working
Some Parameters for Judgement
So once you know what it is, and how it works, the next step probably would be to check its working. And how do you do that? By working through some of the below-mentioned parameters.
Every sensor has its own calibration curve, based on a 9 point system. It basically pitches the pros against the cons of the particular sensor.
It indicates the voltage deviation from the BFSL value and the measured output voltage value, converted to relative humidity.
The measurements often cause the sensor to fall out of sync. However for a sensor to be useful, it has to provide reliable measurements.
The measurements from a sensor, have to be so that they don’t drift apart. Repeatability is the measurement of drift among measurements of a single quantity.
5. Response Time
Typically, the time is taken by a sensor to rise to 66% (rise time) or fall to 33% (fall time) of maximum output voltage, is known as the response time.
Applications of Humidity Sensors
The applications of humidity sensor range far and wide. People with illnesses affected by humidity, monitoring and preventive measure in homes employ humidity sensors. A humidity sensor is also found as part of home heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems (HVAC systems). These are also used in offices, cars, humidors, museums, industrial spaces and greenhouses and are also used in meteorology stations to report and predict the weather.
Humidity Sensor-based Projects Ideas
Presented here is a simple humidity indicator and controller. In industries such as textile, the change in moisture content has a direct impact on the properties of fabric, such as tensile strength, elasticity, fibre diameter and friction. Cotton and linen require high relative humidity (RH) levels of around 70-80 per cent since they are very brittle. Wool requires RH levels of around 65 per cent. While silk requires between 65 and 70 per cent. With this circuit, you can not only monitor humidity levels between 30 and 90 per cent RH but also control it.
The small sniffer device, described in this project, picks up temperature and humidity from inside the fridge and transmits on an RF link to a nearby receiver unit. The receiver unit checks the received code, identifies the right sniffer device and displays live temperature and humidity. Why do we need it you say? We can measure temperature and humidity inside the fridge using a normal temperature-humidity indicator but relative humidity could be inaccurate in that case.
In this article, humidity and temperature information from the DHT-11 sensor is analysed graphically on ThingSpeak platform using Arduino MCU and ESP8266 Wi-Fi module.
Presented here is a simple humidity indicator and controller. In industries such as textile, the change in moisture content has a direct impact on the properties of fabric, such as tensile strength, elasticity, fibre diameter and friction. Therefore the process is executed within a permissible humidity environment only. Depending on the type of fabric and the process being undertaken, the requirement of particular humidity level varies. Cotton and linen have to be processed at very high relative humidity (RH) levels of around 70-80 per cent since they are very brittle. Wool requires RH levels of around 65 per cent. Silk needs to be processed between 65 and 70 per cent. With this circuit, you can not only monitor humidity levels between 30 and 90 per cent RH but also control it.
Presented here is an IoT enabled air pollution meter to monitor air quality on your smartphone using Blynk application and Arduino board. Blynk is an Internet of Things (IoT) platform to control Arduino, Raspberry Pi and the like over the Internet. In this project Blynk provides a digital dashboard on your smartphone that displays real-time air quality readings for the immediate surroundings.
Humidity Sensor FAQs
What is a humidity sensor?
A humidity sensor is a device that measures the amount of water vapor present in the air or other gases.
How does a humidity sensor work?
There are different types of humidity sensors, but most of them work by measuring changes in electrical resistance, capacitance, or temperature caused by moisture in the air.
What is the accuracy of a humidity sensor?
The accuracy of a humidity sensor varies depending on the type of sensor, the calibration, and the conditions under which it is used. Most commercial sensors have an accuracy of around ±2% relative humidity.
How do you calibrate a humidity sensor?
Humidity sensors can be calibrated using a calibration chamber with a known humidity level or using a salt solution with a known humidity level.
What is the range of a humidity sensor?
The range of a humidity sensor depends on the type of sensor and the manufacturer. Some sensors have a range of 0-100% relative humidity, while others have a more limited range.
How do you maintain a humidity sensor?
Humidity sensors should be kept clean and free of dust and debris. They should also be calibrated regularly to ensure accuracy.
What are some common problems with humidity sensors?
Common problems with humidity sensors include drift, hysteresis, and response time. These issues can be addressed through calibration and proper maintenance.
Can humidity sensors be used in outdoor environments?
Yes, humidity sensors can be used in outdoor environments, but they should be protected from direct sunlight and extreme temperatures. Some sensors are specifically designed for outdoor use.
You can comment on your queries in the comment section given below.
Wanna check out the video on humidity sensor: Working with humidity sensor
Another video showing constructing your own Temperature & Humidity Monitor in Less Than 5 Minutes
A quick guide to humidity sensors in the form of slideshow given below:
This article was first published on 9 June 2017 and was recently updated on 15 December 2020.