Sense of hearing
Just like Tesla, which uses radar as one among its suite of electronic senses with which the car finds its way around town, there are other vendors too who plan to use automotive radar.
Radar. CMOS seems to be the in thing in the world of automotive radar. NXP has millimetre-wave technology for its automotive radar, which is based on a digital CMOS process that was not believed possible. The solution covers 76GHz to 81GHz range.
Imec and Vrije Universiteit Brussel from Belgium announced some time back what they then claimed to be the world’s first 79GHz radar transmitter based on digital 28nm CMOS. “With an output power above 10dBm, the transmitter front-end paves the way for full radar-on-chip solutions for automotive and smart environment applications,” stated the release.
Freescale has a 77GHz packaged radar front-end chipset but they use SiGe technology.
Infineon’s SiGe based Radar System IC (RASIC) series consists of a group of highly-integrated functions for 76GHz to 77GHz range for automotive radar.
GPS, V2X and everything else. While these are more for speaking than merely listening, GPS and V2X enable an intelligent transport system where all vehicles and infrastructure systems are interconnected with each other. This connectivity aims to provide more precise knowledge of the traffic situation across the entire road network.
Continental has been at it since 2006. Their system can be complemented by the intelligent localisation sensor M2XPro or Motion Information to X Provider. Fusion of sensor data about speed, steering angle, GNSS and inertial information, along with position and timing information are essential for V2X communication to detect and evaluate potential threats. This enables a perception, detection and assessment of road obstacles and dangerous situations even before these can be noticed optically.
The standardised frequency band of 5.9GHz (IEEE 802.11p) derived from Wi-Fi as the technology base for wireless communication enables direct, low-latency information exchange between vehicles and infrastructure. IEEE 1609 family of standards for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) defines the architecture, communications model, management structure, security mechanisms and physical access for high-speed (up to 27Mb/s), short-range (up to 1000m), low-latency wireless communications in the vehicular environment.
Primary architectural components defined by these standards are OnBoard Unit (OBU), Road Side Unit (RSU) and WAVE interface. Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) is a communication technology that works in the 5.9GHz band in the USA and China or 5.8GHz band in Japan and Europe.
ST has a V2X system using their co-developed Autotalks V2X Communication processor along with ST’s multi-constellation GNSS receiver, Teseo, that builds a perfect match to ensure a precise positioning accuracy, low latency and dead reckoning.
U-blox lists an automotive-grade V2X transceiver module called THEO-P1 series for infrastructure and vehicles, which is in compliance with WAVE and ETSI ITS G5 for American and European operations. U-blox claims that this chip has a range of one kilometre.