Electrical symbols are a graphical representation of electrical and electronic components or devices. These Symbols are used in circuits to recognize a component. It is also called a schematic symbol. Each component has typical functionality according to its operational characteristics.
An electronic circuit or schematic drawing uses a wired path between electronic components to complete the circuit. These components are represented by respective symbols for it.
Electrical and electronic symbols used in circuits are defined with various national and international standards. E.g. IEC standard, JIC standard, ANSI standard, IEEE standard, etc.,
Though electrical symbols are standardized, may vary from country to country, or engineering discipline, based on traditional conventions.
This enables anyone to read a circuit or schematic diagram with ease and clarity.
Electrical symbols virtually represent the components of electrical and electronic circuits and do not define any function or process unless the circuit is implemented with components being physically used. (E.g. the circuit on breadboard or assembled printed circuit board)
There is a symbol for each, and every electrical component or device used in a circuit such as passive components, active components, measuring instruments, logic gates etc.
A table of few electronic symbols is given below for reference: